File Info : Article Frank L. Miller Estimating Bathurst Island Peary Caribou and Muskox Populations | EBOOK UNDUH :ESTIMATING BATHURST ISLAND PEARY CARIBOU AND MUSKOX POPULATIONS |
Contents : ARCTIC VOL. 44 NO. 1 (MARCH 1991) P. 5782 Estimating Bathurst Island Peary Caribou and Musk:ox PopulationIS FRANK L. MILLER' (Received 24 May 1989 accepted in revised form 17 August 1990) ABSTRACT. Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyQ and muskox (Ovibos moschatus) numbers were estimated by systematic aerial s u r v e y on Bathurst Island and Bathurst's five western major satellite islands of Vanier Cameron Alexander Massey and Marc Northwest %rritories the status of Peary caribou in 1985 and 1988.The surveys werecarried out as part of the Canadian Wildlife Service'smost recent evaluation of (1984-88).In July1985 727Peary caribou and 547 muskoxen wereestimated on the six-island s u r v e y area and in July 1988 1034Peary caribou and 522 muskoxen. Post-parturient caribou cows and their newborn calves occurredat significantly greater rates on Massey Island than on the remainder of the survey area in both years. The 1985 and 1988 survey results plus results from earliersurveys within the area are used confound population to illustrate how annual inter-island variation in range use within the survey area by varying numbers of caribou could estimates based on aerial surveys of only Bathurst Island that do not also include at least the five western major satellite islands. Key words: Peary caribou Rangifer taranduspearyi muskoxen Ovibos moschatus population estimates inter-island movements Canadian High Arctic south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands R SUM . En 1985 et 1988 on a dhermink par relevts akriens systkmatiques le nombre de caribous de Peary (Rangifertarandus pearyQ et de boeufs musquks (Ovibos moschatus) sur l' le de Bathurst et ses cinq grandes les satellites occidentales (Vanier Cameron Alexander k effectuts dans le cadrede laderniere tvaluation du Service canadien Massey et Marc) dans les Timitoires du Nord-Ouest. Ces relevks ont h de la faune sur le statut du caribou de Peary(1984-88).En juillet 1985 le nombre des caribous de Peary a h k Cvalu6 il 727 et celui desboeufs musquks il 547 dans les six les formant la zone d'ttude et en juillet 1988 ce nombre a ht kvalut il 1 034 pour le caribou de Peary et A 522 pour le boeuf musquk. Durant les deux annbs en question le taux d'occurrence des femelles caribous venant de mettre bas et de leurs petits ktait beaucoup plus tlevkdans l' le Massey que dans le reste de la zone d'ktude. Les rtsultats des relevks de 1985 et de 1988 ainsi que les rtsultats de relevks effectuks prkc6demment dans la region serventA illustrer comment la variation annuelle entre les les dans l'utilisation sur l' le Bathurst du territoire par des nombres diffkrents de caribous pourrait fausser les estimations de population qui s'appuient uniquement sans tenir compte au moins de ses cinq grandes les satellites occidentales. Mots clks: caribou de Peary Rangifer tamnduspearyi boeuf musquk Ovibos moschatus estimations de population mouvements de population entre les les Extreme-Arctique canadien les centre-sud de la Reine-filisabeth naduit pour le journal par Nksida Loyer. INTRODUCTION I since 1975. The hunting of muskoxen on Bathurst Island is prohibited by regulations under the Government of the NWT Wildlife Act. Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen The Canadian Wildlife Service aerially surveyed Peary (Ovibosrnoschatus) were well represented inthe early 1960s caribou and muskoxen on western and central QEI during on south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) Northwest July 1985 (Miller 1987a) July 1986 (Miller 1987b) and July Territories(NWT) and Bathurst Island was a principal 1987 (Miller 1988) as part of a program to evaluate the status caribou hunting area. In summer 1961 3565 Peary caribou of Peary caribou on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Miller and 1161 muskoxen were estimated by aerial survey on Bathurst Island and four of its western major satellite islands 1990b). The overall trend for all Peary caribou was one of apparently continual declinefrom at least 1961 to 1987. Vanier Cameron Alexanderand Massey (Tener 1963). melve Muskoxen exhibited various rates of recovery in all areas from years then passed before numbers of Peary caribou and 1974 to 1985-87. The only inconsistency in these regional muskoxen on those islands (including the fifth western major findings was an apparent increase in the number of Peary satellite island of Ile Marc) were again estimated by aerial survey. By 1973 Peary caribou on those six south-central caribou on south-centralQEI which includesBathurst Island and several of its satellite islands. Therefore the Canadian QEI had already declined Ca. 75% and muskoxen Ca. 40% WildlifeService resurveyed Bathurst and its five major from their 1961 estimated numbers (Tener 1963 Miller et western satellite islands by air in July1988to further evaluate al. 1977a). Then the winter of 1973-74 was disastrous and the current status of Peary caribou and muskox populations both Peary caribou and muskoxen apparently experienced within that south-central QEI complex. calamitous population reductions due to range-wide major If all caribou and reindeer hadto be characterizedby one die-offs (Parkeret al. 1975 Milleret al. 1977a). The popucommon trait it would betheir seemingly almost continual lation estimates for the six south-central QEI 1974 in for Peary movement while engaged in daily foraging activities and caribou crashed to only Ca. 10% and for muskoxen to Ca. seasonal movements (e.g. Heape 1931 Bergerud 1974). Yet 20% of their respective 1961estimates (Fischer and Duncan this well-known trait of Rangifer is not always adequately 1976 Miller et al. 1977a). In August 1981 Ferguson (1987) determined the status of addressedwhenestimating population sizes by surveys usually because of limited funds. This condition has been Peary caribou and muskox populations on only Bathurst especially true for aerial surveys on the Canadian Arctic Island by aerial survey. He concluded that neither species had shown any marked overall recovery since 1974 and Archipelago. Caribou on the Arctic Archipelago have the therefore the prohibition of harvesting of Peary caribou and unique tradition of often involving two or more different muskoxen on Bathurst Island should continue. The Inuit islands in their seasonal migrations and also when making hunters of Resolute Bay Cornwallis Island have maintained sporadic environmentally forced movements in response to a voluntary ban on hunting of caribou on Bathurst Island widespread forage unavailability (e.g. Miller et al. 1977b Canadian Wildlife Service Western and Northern Region Room 210 @The Arctic Institute of North America 4999 - 98 Avenue Edmonton Alberta Canada T6B 2x3 58 / EL. MILLER 1982 Miller 1990a). The most accurate estimation of the size ofa population of such caribou should be obtained when the entire probable inter-island area occupied by the population is included in the survey. This ecologically sound survey approach has unfortunately not prevailed among studies because of limited fiscal resources.The data from the 1985 and 1988 surveys of Bathurst Island and some of the surrounding satellite islands are used to illustrate this problem. STUDY AREA The islands within the study area lie between 74 and 77ON latitude and96 and 105OW longitude (Fig.1). Bathurst Island is both the largest and the principal game" island within are mainly the survey area. All of the islands are low and lying below 150 m above mean sea level in elevation. Geology topography and vegetation within the study area have been described in some detail (e.g. Dunbar and Greenaway 1956 Thorsteinsson 1958 Savile 1961 Fortier et al. 1963 Qner 1963 Edlund 1983). In 1985 the survey area includedsix islands of the southcentral QEI with a collective landmass of ca. 19 266 km2 (Miller 1987a): Bathurst (16 090 km2) Vanier (1130 km2 Cameron (loa0 km2) Alexander (490 km2) Massey ( 4 4 0 km ) and Marc (56 km2). In 1988 all six were again systematically surveyed along the same line transects as in 1985. FIG. I. Locations of eight s u r v e y strata used i n July 1985 and July 1988 aerial surveys of six south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands Canadian High Arctic. 2 C METHODS Methodology for carryingout the aerialsurveys and calculating the population estimatesisdetailedinMiller (1987a b 1988). The surveys were flown in a Bell-206B turbohelicopter at an airspeed of about 160 km-h" and an altitude of about 90 m above ground level. A four-person survey crew was used: pilot-spotter right front seat navigator-spotter Horizontal distance between helicopter and animal (s) left front seat and two rear-seat observers. The observers measured the angle of depression with hand-held clinometers when the helicopter was abeamof the animals for calculation FIG.2. Schema of angle of depression measured with hand-held clinometer of a n i m a l s for calculation of horizontal rightof horizontal right-angle distance to animal(s) sighted along when helicopter was abeam line transects and recorded data the for the sightings on their angle distance to animal(s) sighted along line transects. respective sides of the aircraft (Fig. 2). Then all caribou were km intervals were equivalent to 27% coverageand those flown classified by designated sexlage classes: bulls cows calves at 3.2 km intervals equalled 54% coverage. juveniles and yearlings. Muskoxen were segregated as bulls or calves and others as cows juveniles or yearlings (Miller RESULTS 1987a b 1988). When necessary the animalswere circledand all four crew members participated in the segregation by The six-island complex was surveyed between 10 and 25 July 1985 and 11 and 21 July 1988 (Tables 1-4). Weather consex/age classes of all individuals in each group. The surveys were carriedout along systematically spaced ditions were generally favourable during both years and the transect lines. The mean density and population estimates range was essentially snow free. were calculated using standard procedures for systematic In 1985 352Peary caribou were counted on and off transect(Table1).Theoverallmeandensityestimateof transect surveys (Cochran 1963 Kingsleyand Smith 1981). caribou onthe six islands was 3.8 ( f 0.72 S.E.) caribou.100 The estimates and their associated varianceswere obtained by usingonly those sightings of animals for which the km-2. Nearly one-third of those estimated caribou occurred collectively on the five western satellite islands at a mean measured angle of depression from the helicopter to the density of 7.3 ( f 1.76 S.E.) caribou.100 km-2. Mean density animals was greater than 5 O (6O or greater). This practice meant that all "on-transect" animals were within about 850 of caribou for the five western satellite islands was 2.4 times mean density of 3.1 ( f 0.75 S.E.) caribou.100 m of either side of the aircraft or within a strip transect width greater than the km-2 on Bathurst Island. The overall proportion of calves of 1700 m ("maximum feasible strip width" - based on among observed caribou on all six islands was 26.1%: 26.3% field testing and evaluation of results using strip transects on Bathurst Island and 25.9% collectively on the five western of 15 different widths flown at three different altitudes N 45 combinations of analyses Prince of Wales and Melville satellite islands. In 1988 602 Peary caribou were counted during the aerial islands NWT spring and summer 1984 EL. Miller unpubl. data ). In thisway surveys flown along line transects at 6.4 survey (Bble 1). The overall mean density estimate of caribou 1- "I BATHURST ISLAND PEARY CARIBOU AND MUSKOXEN / 59 TABLE 1. Numbers counted and population sizes estimated for Peary caribou on six south-centralQueen Elizabeth Islands NWT 10-25 July 1985 and 11-21 July 1988 Number number Estimated of counted' caribou transect Off Tot. On transect 96 16 13 7 (9) 12 0 (54)144 f S.E. of cariboub Tot. fS.E. 1988 1988 Island Bathurst Vanier Cameron Alexander Massey MWC 1985 55 Totals 23 1 12 (9) 22 3 (38) 116 (15) (52) 121 24 (11) 3 11 (2) 2 4 7 (1) 190 (7) (14) (73) (2) (39) (57)166 (12) 34 5 (1) (3) 14 (3) (16) 30 2 (88) 251 495 f 61 f 51 f 38 f 76 f 0 727 f 121.0 37.0 32.9 38.0 20.5 137.7 821 f 85 f 9f 31 f 84 f 4 f 1034 f 138.0 26.2 4.4 1 3 . 2 21.5 2 . 1 142.8 f calves in parentheses. Number o b1985 and 1988 population estimates are not significantly different (t-test P 0.05) for all islands or combination of islands. or Marc islands. Alexander and none was seen on Massey on the six islands was 5.4 ( f 0.74 S.E.) caribou.100 km-'. for all satellite islands was More than one-fifth of the estimated caribou occurred col- The mean density of muskoxen than the mean density of muskoxen on Bathurst lectively on the five western satellite islands at a mean density 5.2 times less of 6.7 (f 1.2 S.E.) caribou-100 km-'. The collective mean Island. The overall proportion of calves among observed density of caribou on the five satellite islands was still 1.3 muskoxen on all islands was 11.8%: 12.2% on Bathurst times greater than the mean density of 5.1 ( f 0.74 S.E.) Island and none on any of the satellite islands. caribou-100 km-' on Bathurst Island. The overall proporMuskoxen were seen more frequently than expected by tional representationof calves among caribou on all islands chance alone on a relative landmass basis on Bathurst Island vs. the five satellite islands collectively in both years (Table was 26.7%: 27.5% on Bathurst Island and 25.2% collec3:1985 X' 25.98 df 1 P 0.005 VS. 1988 X' tively on the five satellite islands. There were 83caribou calves seenat heel per 100 breeding 42.04 df 1 P 0.005). Muskox bulls represented about Lows in both years (Table 2). Caribou bulls ranged from 60 one-fifth and two-fifths of all the 1 + year-old muskoxen /to 37 and juvenile/yearlings from 74to 91 per 100 breeding seen in 1985 and 1988 respectively (Table 4). No attempt cows in 1985and 1988 respectively. Caribou were observed wasmade to segregatemuskoxcowsfromjuvenilesor more frequently than expected by chance alone on a relative yearlings (Table 4). Muskox bulls were underrepresented and landmass basis on the five western satellite islands collecall other sedage classes overrepresented among a l l muskoxen tively (1 6.5 9'0 of the 19 266 km')vs. Bathurst Island (83.5 070 seen in 1985 and vice versa in 1988 (Table 4: X' 33.10 of 19 266 km') in both years (Table 1: 1985 X' 162.41 df 2 P 0.005). df 1 P 0.005 VS. 1988 X' 135.89 df 1 P 0.005). In both1985and 1988post-parturient caribou cows and their DISCUSSION newborn calves occurred in samples of observed caribouat Peary caribou recolonized or colonized essentially the rates about as expected by chance alone (Table 2). Caribou entire Canadian Arctic Archipelago (except apparently bulls were however overrepresented and juvenile/yearlings Baffin Bylot and other immediately adjacent smaller islands) underrepresented in 1985 and vice versa in 1988 (Table 2: by free movement over the seaice after the WisconsinX' 10.75 df 3 P 0.025). There was no significant Weichelianperiodofglaciation.Homogeneouscharacdifference in the observed frequency of caribou by designated from the QEI indicate sex/age classeson Bathurst Island vs. the five satellite islands teristics of specimens of Peary caribou collectively in either year (Table 2: 1985 X' 1.32 df 2 P 0.5 VS. 1988 X' 2.17 df 2 P 0.1). Both post- TABLE 2. Frequency distribution of Peary caribou on south-central parturient cows and newborn calves were however signifi- Queen Elizabeth Islands NWT July 1985 and July 1988 cantly overrepresented on Massey Island vs. the remainder of the survey area in both years (Table2: 1985 X' 9.18 Q " sex/age classes df 2 P 0.025 VS. 1988 X' 20.11 df 2 P 0.005). Bulls n Calves Cows Island Year Juv./yrl.' In 1985 318 muskoxen were counted during the aerial 23.4 21.0 26.3 29.3 205 1985 Bathurst survey (Table 3). The overall mean density estimates of 32.8 9.6 27.5 30.1 396 1988 muskoxen onthe six islands was 2.8 (f0.76 23.1 S.E.) 34.6 Massey 42.3 52 1985 19.1 35.7 45.2 84 1988 muskoxen.100 km-'. Only 4.8% of the estimated muskoxen Vanier 25.032.7 52 1985 occurred on Alexander Island and none was seen on the 23.119.2 18.2 16.9 24.7 40.2 77 1988 other four satellite islands. The overall proportion of calves Alexander 1985 33.3 16.7 24 20.8 29.2 among observed muskoxen on all six islands was 17.0%: 42.9 28.6 10.7 17.8 28 1988 16.7%onBathurstIsland and 4 of 19 muskoxenon Cameron/Marcb 10.5 52.6 10.6 26.3 19 1985 23.5 76.5 17 1988 Alexander Island. All islands six 1985 31.6 352 26.1 19.0 23.3 In 1988 331 muskoxen were counted during the aerial 29.2 12.0 26.7 32.1 602 1988 survey(Table 3). Theoverallmeandensityestimateof JuvJyrl. equals juvenile or yearling caribou. 2.7 ( f 0 . 5 6 S.E.) muskoxen on the six islands was %mall samples from Cameron Island and Ile were Marc combined to allow muskoxen-100 km-'. Only 3.5% of all the estimated Chi-square Goodness-of-fit tests where the hypothetical distributionequaled muskoxen occurred collectively on Cameron Vanier and the overall sample from all six islands in each year. 60 / EL. MILLER Number of muskoxen counted' Off transect Island 1985 1985 (22) Bathurst 138 (28) 114 Vanier 0 Cameron 0 Alexander 8 (4) 139 Totals (32) 122 On transect Estimated number of muskoxenb Tot. f S.E. Tot. fS.E. 88 1988 (17) 135 143 0 0 1 0 (22) 3 4 3 0 7 (17) 153 (22) 142 521 f 145.6 503 0 0 3 . 1 26 f 2 522 f 147.2 f 106.9 6 f 2.9 7f 3 . 5 6 f 3.8 f 108.0 'Number of calves in parentheses. b1985and 1988 population estimates are not significantly different (t-test P 0.05) for all islands or combination of islands no muskoxen were seen on Ile Marc or Massey Island in 1985 or 1988. that maintenance of regular inter-movements had persisted aticallysurveythosefiveislands (at least at 25% aerial over time (Manning 1960 Banfield 1961). Some inter-island coverage) I believe he would have detected an early stage populations of caribou on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago of the increase in the number of caribou within the six-island et al. 1977b 1982). south-central QEI complex in 1981. have been well documented (e.g. Miller Also additional fragmentary evidence for inter-island The results from all aerial surveys except 1974 indicate a movements by caribou on the Canadian Arctic Archipelago marked preference by caribou for some ranges on the satelboth directand indirect observations has been reported and lite islands especially Massey Island over those on Bathurst summarized in terms of ecological importance in Miller Island (Tbble5). Thus it appears that any population estimate (199Oa). At least two basic typesof inter-island movements of Peary caribou on Bathurst Island made in summer is likely are perpetuated by caribou on the Arctic Archipelago: 1) to be an underestimate of as much as nearly one-third (Bble periodicseasonalmigrations and 2) sporadic environ5 ) of the total numberofcaribouwithin the six-island mentally forced inter-island movements due to widespread complex. Population estimates made during extreme lows in 1974 and 1975 would not have markedly influenced those forage unavailability brought onby unfavourable snow/ice conditions (e.g. Miller et al. 1977a b 1982 Miller 19Wa b). estimates of Bathurst Island if the five satellite islands had Both periodic inter-island migrations and sporadic internot been surveyed (Bble 5). Therefore survey results from island movements serve to allow maximal use of the best satellite islands are desirable for better evaluation the bioof available ranges (in terms of quality quantity or availability logical soundness of any necessary management decisions. of forage). Such inter-island movements also provide a con- On the other hand there is no evidence direct or indirect tinuingmeans by which Peary cariboucaneventually of regular inter-island movements of muskoxen among the repopulate islands where caribou herds have been annihilated south-central QEI. There is however evidence of muskoxen through prolonged or rapid major die-offs. moving during a period of widespread forage unavailability Indirectevidence for inter-island movements ofPeary inwinter1973-74from Bathurst Island to at least Little caribouamongBathurstIslandandadjacentislands is Cornwallis and Cornwallis islands (Miller et ul. 1977a).Also available in the form of changing numbers (both annually Inuit hunters from ResoluteBay Cornwallis Island believe and seasonally) and markedly distorted representations of that muskoxen (and caribou) commonly move back and forth caribou by sex/age classes (e.g. Bissett 1968 Freeman 1975 between Bathurst Island and Little Cornwallis or Cornwallis Miller et al. 1977b Miller and Gunn 1978 Miller 1987a islands (G. Eckalook T. Manik L. Nungag pers. comm. 1990a b). Ferguson(1987)did not survey Bathurst's five major of prior com- TABLE 5. Proportional distributions of Peary caribou on Bathurst western satellite islands in August 1981 because mitments for the use of the aircraft at that time (M.A.D. Island vs. the five western major satelliteislands (Vanier Cameron Ferguson pers. comm. 1988). If he had been to able systemAlexander Massey and Marc) NWT TABLE 4. Frequency distribution o f muskoxen on south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands NWT July 1985 and July 1988 20.6d 1034 @lo sex/age classes 123.4 31.gd Cows/juv./yrl.' n Calves Bulls 361 16.7 23.6d 3565 57.8 4 50.0 50.0 4 100.0 3 100.0 Island Year 64.2 16.7 Bathurst 19.1 299 1985 49.4 12.2 38.4 320 132.9 1988 Alexander 21.121.1 19 1985 1988 Cameron 1988 Vanier 1988 17.0 19.2 T o t a l s 318 1985 .3 11.8 39.9 331 1988 Year 1988' 1 9 8 5 ' 1975b 1974b 1961' Vo of estimated Estimated total population occurring Annual Chi-square population for on five western contributions satellite islands (df 1) all six islands 1 2 . 8 727 45.8 3.3* 228 0 . 1 ' N o attempt was made to segregate cows from juveniles or yearlings because of the difficultyof constantly doing so while the observers were airborne. "Data source Miller (1987a)and this study. bData source Fischer and Duncan ( 1 9 7 6 ) . 'Data source Tener (1963). d A contribution a l of caribou on a relative landmass basis estimated on the five western major satellite islands was significantly (P 0.005) greater and 1961 and less in 1975 than the estimated number on in 1988 1985 areas are Bathurst Island 83.5% Bathurst Island (where respective landmass vs. the five major western satellite islands 16.5% ). BATHURST ISLAND PEARY CARIBOU AND MUSKOXEN 1 61 for low-density populations of caribou or muskoxen to be 1988). Thus there is no evidence to even suggest that any adequately managed on a biologically sound basis. range on the five western major satellite islands has been or Thealternativeapproach wouldbe to conductaerial currently isimportant to muskoxen within the south-central surveys of Bathurst Island only (but still at least at 25% QEI (Table 6). Only a few muskoxen have been found on any of the five western satellite islands (Bner 1963 Fischer coverage) and base all management decisions on the resultant and Duncan 1976 Milleret al. 1977a Miller 1987a). Even estimates as measures of "minimum populations." If this in summer 1961 when the highest number of muskoxen (n lower cost approach is employed apparent increases in population sizes could occur over time (possibly even between 1161)was estimated within the six-island south-central surveys) at rates that would be well beyond the populations' QEIcomplex(Tener 1963) only 2.2% were on the five maximum reproduction potential. These erroneously perwestern satellite islands (Table 6). ceived increases could be solely or partially due to annual For management purposes a decision most often has to variations in summer occupation of the various islands within be made between the costs of obtaining highly accurate data the south-central QEI complex. Also with the alternative and the need for collecting less accurate information at a lower cost approach it will not be possible to accurately lower cost. For Peary caribou and muskox populations within evaluate the apparent impact of various levels of annual this south-central QEI complex I conclude the following. harvests because no measure will be known of the possible 1) Whenobtaining accurate estimates of numbers and satisexchange of animals and the associated annual variation in factory samples of sex/age composition it will be necessary such exchanges due to inter-island movements resulting from to aerial survey at least Bathurstand the five major western traditionsorenvironmentallyforced events. Thus satellite islands at minimum coverages of at least 25% and management decisions relating to harvest of especially Peary 50% respectively. Extrapolation of the number of animals caribou will haveto be ultra-conservative in order to be safe seen on each set of alternate line transects (odd vs. even) on over the long term until it can be demonstrated without doubt each of the satellite islands when surveyed at 50% coverage that the herd can sustain high rates of annual harvests. gives two additional population estimates for the satellite islands (at 25% coverage each)to compare directly with the These findings support the position that harvesting of muskoxen and especially R a r y caribou on Bathurst Island 25% coverage ofBathurst Island.2) Ideally results from the spot checks should be carried out on the other satellite islands should be carried out only at low ratesand strictly controlled of Bathurst Island on Little Cornwallis Island and on at Also to promote population growth by Inuit of Resolute Bay. least northeastern(Fileanor Lake drainage)and southwestern any limited harvest that is considered should exclude female Cornwallis Island. This extra effort is particularly important individuals especially those of breeding age. if environmental stress during the previous winter is suspected. 3) If funding permits subsequent intensive resurvey ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS of caribou ormuskox concentrations should be carried out as recommended by Ferguson (1987). T o date however no The study w a s supported by the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) agencyhasbeenforthcomingwith the additional funds Environment Canada and Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP) necessary to do so. I recommend 50% coverage of the satEnergy Mines and Resources Canada. I am grateful to G.D. Hobson his long-time support of my caribou studies. past director PCSP for it is only an additional small costand ellite islands because S.J. Barry CWS kindly provided statistical assistance S.M. is necessary to better evaluate the sexjage composition of MacEachran CWS drafted the figures. I thank J.R.W. McGillis the caribou on those small islands and tofurther document and A. Westcott for their assistance as observers and pilots Dave the apparent annual preference by breeding caribou cows for White (1985) and Len Martin(1988) Associated Helicopters Ltd. postcalving and probably calving areas on Massey Island. for their flying skill and for their assistance as navigator-spotter I believedetailedknowledgeofsex/agecompositionis on the survey and searches. I thank Dr. A. Gunn Department of necessary along with reliable data about trends in numbers Renewable Resources(DRR) Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) and Dr. R.G.W. Edwards CWS for critically reading the manuscript.I also thank M.A.D. Ferguson DRR GNWT and TABLE 6. Proportional distributions of muskoxen on Bathurst Island vs. the five western major satellite islands (Vanier Cameron two anonymous reviewers for their reviews of the manuscript. Alexander Massey and Marc) NWT Vo of estimated Estimated total population occurring Annual Chi-square population for on five western contributions 1) Yearislands satellite six islands (df all 1988" 1985" 62.21 1975b 1974b 54.45 522 69 1161 86.5' 38.29 REFERENCES BANFIELD A.W.F. 1961. A revision of the reindeer and caribou genus Rangifer. National Museum of Canada Bulletin 177 (Biological Series 6 ) . 137 p. No. 6 BERGERUD A.T. 1974. The role of the environment in the aggregation movementanddisturbancebehaviour of caribou. In: Geist V. and Walther F. eds. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Morges Switzerland. New Series Publications No. 24552-584. 0' 1%1d "Data source Miller (1987a) and this study. bData source Fischer and Duncan (1976). No muskoxenwere seen "on transect" by Fischer and Duncan (1976) in 1975 therefore none was estimated (69 actual number of muskoxen seen "off-transect"). dData source Tener (1963). Annual contributionof muskoxen on a relative landmass basis estimated ) in all years than on Bathurst Island was significantly(P 0 . 0 0 5greater on the five major western satellite islands collectively. the estimated number BISSETT D.1968. Resolute: An area economic survey. Vol. I1 of Lancaster Sound Survey. Ottawa: IndustrialDivision Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 175 p. COCHRAN W.G. 1963. Sampling techniques. 2nd ed. New York:John Wiley & Sons Inc. 413 p. DUNBAR M. andGREENAWAY K.R. 1956. Arctic Canada from the air. Ottawa: Canadian Defense Research Board. 541 p. EDLUND S.A. 1983. Bioclimatic zonation in a High Arctic region: central Queen Elizabeth Islands. Current Research Part A Geological Survey of Canada paper 83-1A381-390.
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